This document defines a set of rules for the production of high quality C++ code. The guiding principles of this standard are maintenance, portability, readability and robustness.
In the year 2020, the world will be more connected, wireless networks will connect more machines than people and Machine-to-Machine (M2M) technology will help us to be more energy and cost-efficient, safer and more secure. This is the era of connected intelligence. It is tempting to assume that cellular will hold the answer to M2M connectivity, but stop and ask yourself this question: Are cellular networks designed for M2M or are they more about broadband connectivity for people?
Success in the auto industry is no longer determined by the horsepower of an engine, or how many cup holders it has. Buyers today ask different questions.
Increased competition, more dense designs and integration of different technologies in a small space combined with market regulatory pressures are creating new challenges for original equipment manufacturers. As a result, implementing the necessary transient immunity protections to prevent application malfunction due to transients on power and signal lines is becoming ever more challenging. The impact of increasing microcontroller (MCU) sensitivity and low-cost application design is being felt in all markets: consumer, industrial, automotive, etc. While there are significant differences in the design and use of products for these markets, the susceptibilities induced in all microcontroller-based applications are essentially the same. Typical susceptibilities include unexpected state changes on input pins (reset, interrupt request, or general purpose inputs) and corruption of on-chip clock signals, which can all cause various operational issues on the design itself, in addition to resulting in failure to meet regional compliance regulations for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).
Learn how to avoid software security vulnerabilities like injection flaws, memory leaks and null pointer dereferences in this set of 8 online technical courses focused on CWE-indentified weaknesses. Watch the courses now!
Building High-Performance Next-Generation Networks with Wind River Intelligent Network Platform on Intel Architecture
Break the Build Bottleneck with Faster, More Accurate Builds
For embedded systems designers, selecting the optimal solid state drive (SSD) form factor has never been more difficult. That is because the industry joke, "standards are great -- everybody ought to have one", unfortunately rings true especially when referring to SSDs.
One new microarchitecture for all mid-range to high-end embedded applications
The unstable power conditions of outdoor applications such as transportation, telecommunications/networking and embedded systems run the risk of data loss and drive corruption during a sudden power failure. Power failures result in downtime as embedded systems need to be reformatted and operating systems reinstalled. Furthermore, the overall productivity decreases as the cost of ownership increases for industrial grade memory solutions, which are specifically designed for high performance mission critical applications.
Boards and modules with AMD's Embedded G-Series platform for graphics-intensive SFF applications make migration easy.
FPGAs have become an increasingly important resource for software radio systems.
An oscilloscope is a very versatile instrument used in a broad array of engineering environments.
This application note presents methods for integrating Rohde and Schwarz test and measurement (T and M) instruments into The MathWorks MATLAB(r) applications. This allows you to remote-control Rohde and Schwarz instruments for T and M applications from MATLAB(r).
The intent of this paper is to share with embedded developers and vendors the results of the 2013 EMF survey that we recently concluded.
Measuring signals in real time means: do not lose any signal. But how can we get rid of the blind times?
Engineers working on large, complex project with short deadlines will face many design tradeoffs and decisions. Deciding where to focus time during the design phase is a big challenge. This paper identifies three important design decisions you should make when programming an embedded system, and provides guidance given your application requirements. Taking time to consider each of these three items will put you on the right track to designing a reliable, scalable, and maintainable embedded application.
The folks at Pentek are pleased to announce their newly released High-Speed, Real-Time Recording Systems Handbook. This handbook will prove to be a useful technical reference for engineers involved in data acquisition and recording.
White Paper: High Performance ZVS Buck Regulator Removes Barriers To Increased Power Throughput In Wide Input Range Point-Of-Load Applications
The need for higher power density in today's electronic systems combined with higher overall efficiency has driven many changes in the Non-isolated Point-of-Load Regulator (niPOL). In an effort to improve overall system efficiency, designers are opting to avoid multiple conversion stages to get to the regulated point-of-load voltage they need. This means that the niPOL is operated at higher input voltages with higher conversion ratios than ever before. Despite this fact, the niPOL is expected to maintain the highest efficiency and still continue to shrink the total size of the power solution. There is also the added expectation that with all other performance increases that power demand from the niPOL also further increases.
To ship a system with the secure boot feature enabled, fundamental changes need to be made to the way the system is designed, manufactured, deployed, and maintained. Many companies have used signing services for operating system drivers, but supporting the secure boot infrastructure on a product line is a much more difficult proposition. This paper discusses aspects of this problem and reviews resources that can help solve it.
Cyber warfare has swiftly migrated from hacking into enterprise networks and the Internet to targeting, and being triggered from, mobile devices. With the explosion in the number of connected devices, security attacks can now be launched from anywhere, targeting any place. Wind River(r) has combined our solutions for commercial Android with experience in secure certified embedded systems to develop an advanced security strategy for Android platforms that also ensures compatibility with the commercial Android development model. Our comprehensive approach includes attack detection and prevention, device integrity, isolation techniques, and infrastructure security to protect data and devices from multiple threat vectors.
The state-of-the-art features in today's vehicles rely heavily on software which introduces the risk of code defects, software failures and malicious attack. This paper provides automotive software developers with three strategies to address these challenges.
Ten members of the Freescale Motor Control Center of Excellence describe motor control trends, techniques, and solutions.
The AMD Geode(tm) LX family of processors, announced in 2005, has been delivering x86 processing and versatility to applications for industrial control, medical, transportation, infotainment, point-of-sale, and thin client applications for more than six years and are planned to be available through 2015. AMD Geode LX processors provide a combination of low-power x86 processing and graphics capabilities needed for designing innovative and creative products. With an average power of 2.45Wi, the AMD Geode LX800 offers designers a complete set of features that deliver full desktop functionality to embedded and portable devices.
Design tips and considerations for getting M2M products to market on time while meeting system target costs.
Denial of service attacks. Data leaks. System crashes. Malicious code execution. These are all examples of the impact of exploited vulnerabilities in your code. As a diligent and security-conscious software developer, you need to arm yourself with the knowledge to defend your code against these issues.
White Paper: Accelerated Deep Packet Inspection for Network Security Applications — Delivering High-Performance DPI on Intel Xeon Processor with Wind River Content Inspection Engine
By providing DPI technology optimized for multi-core processors, this paper demonstrates a cost effective software solution for scanning data content at line rate in security equipment ranging from small network appliances to large network elements.
Times have changed and technology has progressed to the point where people can no longer claim ignorance when it comes to embedded user interfaces. A graphical user interfaces are no longer nice-to-haves; in the mind of the current marketplace they are a necessity.
Intel architecture (IA) processors along with Intel Data Plane Development Kit (Intel DPDK) and Intel QuickAssist Technology enable the creation of high-performance data plane applications that previously required niche purpose-built processors or custom application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). This paper discusses Wind River's solutions works with Linux to accelerate a variety of data plane networking applications, including routing, network security, wireless infrastructure, and others that need high-performance networking on a Linux platform.
Linux is a popular choice for a wide range of medical devices. Yet due to the critical nature of these devices, manufacturers must take additional precautions. This paper explores the issues that software developers and medical device manufacturers need to take into account in choosing Linux for medical devices. It outlines some regulatory compliance and support requirements for software in medical devices and what to look for in a commercial Linux vendor. It highlights how Wind River addresses these issues by providing a comprehensive solution, including the necessary documentation, services, and support to help build high-performance devices.
White Paper: Keeping Rail Projects On Track and On Time: Solutions for Mastering Complex Technology Challenges
This paper explores the challenges manufacturers face and how technology choices made early in the system-design process can mitigate them. It explains how approaches proven in the aerospace industry where physical space is limited and safety is paramount – can reduce risks and costs, accelerate development time, simplify maintenance, and create a safer, more enjoyable experience for the passenger.
With billions of devices becoming connected in the "Internet of things" and sharing data through the cloud, managing complexity is a challenge. The amount of data moving around the Internet is expected to double in just three years. Are you prepared for this date surge? In this paper, we examine the key industry trends driving consolidation of processing workloads to make all the functionality on a device secure, manageable, and scalable.
Throwing the prototypes over the wall to your prototype house can result in time-consuming, costly mistakes. Here are the five most prevalent issues we see at Screaming Circuits, along with ways to prevent them.
An introduction to NAND Flash Technology. An Industrial Grade (IG) product features extreme ruggedness, high reliability and wide operating temperatures. With the recent introduction of several MLC NAND products, system designers must become fully aware of the trade-offs of using MLC products compared to an industrial grade SLC product.
Sophisticated graphics have hit the embedded systems world and are increasingly demanded by military, aerospace, industrial, and medical applications. The problem, of course, is that graphics are challenging even in the desktop world. In embedded designs, they present unique issues that include very specific, nonstandard functionality.
The AMD G-T16R Accelerated Processing Unit (APU) represents the latest APU configuration of the AMD G-Series family. With its excellent performance, low average power, compatibility with legacy I/O, and low price, the AMD G-T16R APU provides an ideal migration path for power- and cost-sensitive x86 based designs.
White Paper: The 3rd Generation Intel Core Processor: A must have for all high-performance embedded computing appliances
Intel(r) 3-D processor technology brings a new dimension of processing to the embedded computing space and comes with a great deal of improvements. What are the most important benefits for embedded appliances and how can engineers deploy them most efficiently?
Wish you could cut time out of your product development cycle? One way to do it is to address design for manufacturability (DFM) as early as possible. Here is our Top Five list of common DFM issues. Use it as a checklist on your next project.
Nearly half of all critical security leaks in embedded software are due to heap overflows. Stack-based buffer overflows account for a smaller percentage, but are exploited with the same technique to inject and execute unauthorized code or change execution flow. Instead of policing such attacks to manage security risk, a better approach is to use the strength of quality software development and code testing with static analysis to find and fix the underlying defects that lead to security vulnerability.
How can product development teams reduce product development time even when internal resources have been cut?
High-Level Synthesis (HLS) tools have become increasingly popular for creating ASIC and FPGA hardware with less effort and risk. The productivity gains can be very high, especially when starting from higher abstraction levels like that of Synphony Model Compiler, which uses the Simulink(r) environment and a high-level IP model library for design capture. However, when it comes to integrating an HLS design into a surrounding system or system-on-chip (SoC), the manual effort of interface integration, re-verification and the subsequent risks of errors, debugging and project delay can significantly diminish the HLS productivity gains.
Low speed serial bus validation requires more than simple voltage verses time measurements. LeCroy oscilloscopes have the ability to use a wide range of triggering, analysis and decode capabilities to bring increased confidence to the validation process. This article will cover methods to capture, view, decode and debug a variety of low speed serial data protocols including RS232, generic UARTs, I2C, CAN, Flexray, LIN, ARINC 429, MIL-STD-1553, MIPI DPHY, DigRF 3G, DigRF v4 and Audio applications (I2S, LJ, RJ and TDM).
In this challenging global economy, system integrators are facing growing pressure to lower costs, accelerate Time-to-Market (TTM), and maximize profits while reducing risk. This white paper explores the hidden costs of commercially available PC platforms when used in embedded applications and why today's embedded platforms are a superior choice for your next high-end embedded application. Included are the common myths and misconceptions of today's embedded platforms. We need to clearly differentiate today's embedded solutions from those of 5 or 10 years ago and recognize the dramatic evolution that is currently taking place in embedded technology.
Software simulation of RTL is no longer capable of providing all of the verification required for today's complex ASIC designs. Modern ASICs are a complex mixture of hardware and software, so it is necessary to verify the design within the context of the complete system, running the full range of software at speeds that approach real-time. Successfully validating an ASIC design on an FPGA-based prototype before committing to silicon is now a key project milestone for most design teams. This paper examines some of the best practices for both successful bring-up and logic debug of ASICs using FPGA-based prototypes.
Software developers stand to gain increased speed and functionality from multiprocessor architectures, but the resulting complexity makes detecting software errors more challenging. Read this technical paper for an overview of the challenges associated with software development on next-gen architectures and learn how static analysis can help.
Xilinx delivers the first automated, fine-grain clock-gating solution that can reduce dynamic power by up to 30% in Virtex(r)-6, Spartan(r)-6, Kintex(tm)-7, and Virtex-7 FPGA designs. Xilinx intelligent clock-gating optimizations are automatically performed on the entire design, introduce no new tools or steps to the flow, and generate no changes to the existing logic or to the clocks that alter the behavior of the design. And, in most cases, the timing is also preserved.
This white paper describes several aspects of power related to the Xilinx(r) 28 nm 7 series FPGAs, including the TSMC 28 nm high-k metal gate (HKMG), high performance, low power (28 nm HPL or 28 HPL) process choice. The power benefits afforded by the 28 HPL process and its usefulness across Xilinx's full product offerings is described as well as the architectural innovations and features for power reduction across the dimensions of static power, dynamic power, and I/O power.
The rapid change in today's design environment requires a programmable solution that provides the highest performance and lowest power at the lowest cost. To meet the needs of high-volume systems, it is essential that the solution uses the latest 45 nm high-volume technology.
White Paper: Xilinx Redefines Power, Performance, and Design Productivity with Three Innovative 28 nm FPGA Families: Virtex-7, Kintex-7, and Artix-7 Devices
Industry dynamics are driving seemingly insatiable demand for higher bandwidth and higher system-level performance while facing more stringent mandatory requirements to reduce power consumption. At the same time, competitive pressures are forcing customers to increase productivity without sacrificing innovation and differentiation. To meet these demands, Xilinx(r) 7 series FPGAs leverage the unprecedented power, performance, and capacity enabled by TSMC's 28 nm high-k metal gate (HKMG), high performance, low power (HPL) process technology and the unparalleled scalability afforded by the FPGA industry's first unified silicon architecture to provide a comprehensive platform base for next-generation systems.
Texas Instruments is world's first semiconductor company to license EtherCAT technology and integrate it into the Sitara AM335x ARM generation of ARM Cortex-A8-based microprocessors (MPUs). This whitepaper explores implementation of this technology on the AM335x processor through its programmable real-time unit (PRU)-based programmable technology to create a unified front-end for industrial communications and bring EtherCAT and other industrial standards to its growing platform of ARM-based microprocessors.